2016 Summer REU

Summer Research Experience for Undergraduates
Pages from 2016 CEM Research for Undergraduates Journal Part 1
Pages from 2016 CEM Research for Undergraduates Journal Part 2
Pages from 2016 CEM Research for Undergraduates Journal Part 3 

2016 Summer REU Student Information & Research Abstracts


LianaAName: Liana Alves
Undergraduate Institution: Haverford College
Major: Chemistry         
REU Advisor: Dr. Pat Woodward 
Project Title: Mapping out Phase Diagrams of Halide Double Perovskites
The synthesis of the double perovskites Cs2AgBiCl6, Cs2AgInCl6, Cs2NaInCl6 from solutionmethods have been analyzed using x-ray diffractions. In order to understand what byproducts arebeing made in the complex synthesis of the double perovskites, multiple ternary phase diagramshave been constructed with each point representing a compound synthesized by either solutionor solid state grinding methods. The ternary phase diagrams vary by halide X=Cl, Br, I and by theM3+ =Bi, Sb, In site with the constant AgX and CsX component. The phase diagrams help organizethe synthesis data for any future research done on lead free halide double perovskites. Multiplesynthesis attempts were made on the Cs2AgBiI6 using different reagents and solvents, but theXRD is not conclusive to declare the perovskite form. The Cl-Bi and Br-Bi are complete phasediagrams, but the I-Bi diagram products indicate the system is not yet thermodynamically stable.Synthesis of AgBiBr4, Cs3BiBr6, AgBi2I7 have no literature cited crystal structure and their x-raycrystallography images show promise for solving their structures.    
Name: Jordan FuhrmanJordanF
Undergraduate Institution: University of Alabama
Major: Physics and Mathematics
REU Advisor: Dr. Fengyuan Yang
Project Title: Magnetic Skyrmions in Epitaxial Films
In magnetic information storage systems, the ability to manipulate magnetic structures is paramount. The skyrmion, a vortex of spins, is one candidate for the improvement of information processing1-3. Skyrmions have been observed in someB20 phase crystals, including FeGe, due to the non-symmetric structure of the B20lattice. Additionally, FeGe thin films have a larger skyrmion phase range than their bulk FeGe crystal counterparts1. This skyrmion phase can be detected through the topological Hall effect. Previous studies have shown that the current density must exceed a critical value in order to cause depinning, or motion, of the skyrmion 4. This project focuses on analyzing the relationship between the topological Hall effect,critical current density for skyrmion motion, and the thickness of the films. The FeGe films are produced using off-axis magnetron sputtering, and are then characterized using both X-ray diffraction and Hall measurements. In order to observe this phenomenon at low current densities, this project employs the use of lock-in technique to achieve increased sensitivity of the topological Hall measurements.These measurements could be valuable for utilizing FeGe thin films in low energy cost spintronic applications.
 Name: Adam Goad
Undergraduate Institution: University of Maryland, Baltimore County
Major: Physics and Mathematics
REU Advisor: Dr. Roland Kawakami 
Project Title: Proximity Induced Ferromagnetism in Pt|CoFe2O4 Hybrid Interfaces
Manipulation of electron spin is essential to unlocking the potential of spin-based logic devices for information processing.  Inducing magnetism within nonmagnetic materials by means of a proximity effect will enable us to more definitively and effectively manipulate electron spin within a system.  With our project, we are looking to report evidence of proximity induced ferromagnetism in a thin film of Pt covering a ferromagnetic insulator, CoFe2O4.  Hall bars are created to enable us to make Hall measurement of the induced ferromagnetic Pt thin film.  If an anomalous hall effect is present in the Pt thin film, evident of proximity induced ferromagnetism, then we will see a non-linear relationship between the measured Hall voltage and the applied magnetic field.  When we have confirmed the presence of proximity induced ferromagnetism in a nonmagnetic thin film, we can attempt to tune the effect.  By taking Hall measurements of Hall bars with different termination layers, we may be able to control the presence and even magnitude of our observed induced magnetism.  If we can verify proximity induced ferromagnetism in thin films, then we can pursue verification of proximity induced ferromagnetism in two-dimensional (2D)materials.  The possibilities of 2D materials are bountiful, but if we are able to exhibit proximity induced ferromagnetism in them, we can unlock the possibilities of 2D materials that are limited by non-magnetism.
Name: Patricio Herrera
Undergraduate Institution: New Mexico Highlands University
Major: Civil Engineering     
REU Advisor: Dr. Denis Pelekhov 
Project Title: The Development of a Simulation model for calculating the MagneticField of a Complex Ferromagnetic Structure
The research done this summer was to solve the calculation of the magnetic field of a complex ferromagnetic structure. The method used was a “Coulombian approach”. This technique uses an equivalent distribution of point charges that are within the structure and surface.The process is done by integrating small charged values distance‘d’ away from a point of interest.This was implemented numerically with the MatLab package. A great part of this program is the fact that I could do complex structures, which broadens its uses. The simulation is also designed todo the calculation more rapidly using numerical integration by means of MatLab and C. The code is designed to be user friendly to assist the local collaboration by comparing their experiments to the theory. For example, this code will be compared to Yttrium Iron Garnet (YIG) which is a very desirable material, because of its microwave properties.
 Name: Laura Jennings
Undergraduate Institution: Wake Forest University
Major: Physics and Mathematical Business
REU Advisor: Dr. Chris Hammel
Project Title: Characterizing Magnetic Properties of Micro-Scale Nd2Fe14B and SmCo5Particles Using Cantilever Magnetometry
On a microscopic scale, the properties of Samarium Cobalt (SmCo5) and Neodymium IronBoron (Nd2Fe14B) behave differently than in bulk measurements. With the use of a cantilever, the small signals of these magnets can be measured in order to characterize the particles. Through cantilever magnetometry, when sweeping an applied external field, aFrequency vs. Field graph can be constructed that allows for the measurement of moment and coercive field. The moment of a 5.4-micron diameter samarium cobalt particle was measured to be 3.1 × 10−9For another Samarium Cobalt sample, the moment was measured to be 1.0351 × 10−9 with a coercive field of 17587 G. Through this experiment, these results were evaluated and future directions were advised.

Name: Jason Marquez
Undergraduate Institution: New Mexico Highlands University
Major: Engineering and Mathematics
REU Advisor: Dr. Roberto Myers
Project Title: Anomalous Nernst Effect and Magnetization in GaFe Wire
Thermal gradient exploitation via ambient differences is essential in plumbing pipes, engine exhaust systems, and possibly cold refrigerant housings. With the Nerst Effect (NE) and Anomalous Nerst Effect (ANE), temperature differences can be utilized to harvest electricity. This study focused on the thermal-electric material Galfenol (GaFe) because of its predicted large ANE coefficient. It was found that the voltage does exactly track along magnetization, which implies that GaFe exhibits both NE and ANE properties. GaFe was also discovered to have a hard axis along the magnetic field direction. This resulted in the NE quickly overpowering ANE during the measurement.
Name: Maranda Reed
Undergraduate Institution: The Ohio State University
Major: Electrical Engineering
REU Advisor: Dr. Leonard Brillson
Project Title: Surface Photovoltage Spectroscopy of a Dual Polarity Two-DimensionalSemiconductor
This investigation is focused on the study of 2D Methyl-Terminated Germanane electronic properties as it pertains to defect detection and characterization. The study of germanane is of interest because it is a 2D direct bandgap semiconductor which has applications in optoelectronics. GeCH3 was found to have a possible duality in conduction response when put under testing using surface photovoltage spectroscopy. The implications of this finding can impact material synthesis.
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Name: Ryan Rodriguez
Undergraduate Institution: Lawrence Technological University
Major: Physics 
REU Advisor: Dr. Jay Gupta
Project Title: Gate Dependent Transport and Scanning Tunneling Microscopy of a Graphene Device
Graphene, recognized as a two dimensional (2D) hexagonal lattice of carbon atoms,presents interesting electrical properties that show potential in electrical applications. The goal of this research is to provide characterization data for 1 micron wide gated graphene sheet and the scanning tunneling microscopy/spectroscopy (STM/STS) investigation of the electron transport for cobalt coated graphene devices. Graphene will be analyzed using atomically resolved scanning tunneling microscopy while a back gate voltage is applied to shift the Fermi level. The resistance of uncoated graphene will be measured with respect to the back gate voltage applied. We provide a method for navigate to small (< 10 micron) wide graphene via capacitance navigation as well as transport data for graphene at ultra-high vacuum pressures.

Recent Posts

Center for Emergent Materials awarded $18 Million NSF Grant to Support High-Impact, Cutting-Edge Science

The National Science Foundation (NSF) announced that the Center for Emergent Materials (CEM) at The Ohio State University has been awarded Materials Research Science and Engineering Center (MRSEC) funding for the third time since 2008. This $18 million, six-year grant will fund transformative science and complex materials discovery by two multidisciplinary, collaborative groups of researchers and includes funding to help ease entry into science from underrepresented groups.

“We are excited to have won this highly prized funding because it enables scientists to undertake complex and transformative projects at the scientific frontiers, and provides sustained support for diverse teams to collaboratively synthesize new understanding and open new research topics,” said P. Chris Hammel, Ohio Eminent Scholar, physics professor and director of the Center for Emergent Materials.

After an intense and highly competitive process, 11 MRSECs were funded for this cycle, bringing the nationwide total to 19. A flagship initiative for NSF, the MRSEC program funds research at the cutting-edge of scientific discovery by enabling teams of researchers to tackle scientific problems that are too large and complex for one person or one group to make an impact. These teams, called Interdisciplinary Research Groups (IRGs), are made up of a diverse group of faculty, their students and postdoctoral researchers.

This funding will allow CEM to continue its history of excellence with two new IRGs, which aim to develop materials that grant improved control over magnetic properties, generating new paradigms in computing and information storage.

IRG-1: Creation and Control of Metal/Magnetic-Insulator Interfaces is co-led by Jinwoo Hwang, associate professor of materials science engineering, and Fengyuan Yang, professor of physics. This group will focus on magnetic interactions at interfaces between metals and magnets. The team includes faculty in the fields of chemistry and biochemistry, materials science engineering and physics at Ohio State and Carnegie Mellon University.

IRG-2: Topology and Fractionalization in Magnetic Materials is co-led by Joseph Heremans, professor of mechanical and aerospace engineering and physics, and Yuan-Ming Lu, associate professor of physics. Group members will focus on control of configurations and interrelationships between magnetic interactions that protect magnetic states against omnipresent disruptive forces. The team is made up of faculty in chemistry and biochemistry, materials science engineering, mechanical and aerospace engineering and physics at Ohio State and Colorado State University.

“An important benefit of this funding is its support for a seed program that nurtures new science and prepares young scientists to be leaders,” explained Hammel. “For example, IRG-1 grew out of a project initiated by Prof. Jinwoo Hwang with seed funding support.”

Both of the IRGs were nucleated in the Ohio State’s Materials Research Seed Grant Program, an enterprising Ohio State program run by the CEM, the Center for Exploration of Novel Complex Materials (ENCOMM), and the Institute for Materials Research (IMR) that supports new developments in materials research.

A robust education, human resources and development (EHRD) program aimed at increasing scientific literacy and diversity from elementary school students through the faculty ranks rounds out the new initiatives this award will enable. CEM will continue to provide mentorship for high-needs K-12 students through outreach and tutoring programs. The externally funded Masters-to-Ph.D. minority Bridge Program, which increases the pool of faculty candidates from underrepresented backgrounds continues to be essential to CEM’s EHRD efforts.

“Center faculty and current bridge students are vital participants that provide research and academic mentorship and support to incoming bridge students,” said Michelle McCombs, CEM’s outreach and inclusion director. “Connecting new students to a network of Bridge peers eases the transition to graduate school life and provides a direct link to older students who are invaluable sources of advice.”

Additionally, CEM’s new Diversity Action Plan, founded on proven strategies employing concrete, measureable steps, is focused on improving faculty and post-secondary diversity.

“Through implementation of the additional strategies, we will have the opportunity to further expand prior efforts to enhance diversity and inclusion of the CEM in more meaningful and sustainable ways,” said La’Tonia Stiner-Jones, assistant dean of graduate programs in graduate education, assistant professor of practice in biomedical engineering and CEM’s senior advisor for diversity and inclusion.

  1. Two CEM Faculty Receive Excellence in Undergraduate Research Mentoring Award Comments Off on Two CEM Faculty Receive Excellence in Undergraduate Research Mentoring Award
  2. Robert Baker Wins Camille Dreyfus Teacher-Scholar Award Comments Off on Robert Baker Wins Camille Dreyfus Teacher-Scholar Award
  3. Tiny magnetic particles enable new material to bend, twist and grab Comments Off on Tiny magnetic particles enable new material to bend, twist and grab
  4. Cross-IRG Research Published in Physical Review Letters Comments Off on Cross-IRG Research Published in Physical Review Letters